Republic of Tajikistan is situated in the south-east of the Central Asia, between the latitudes 36°40’ to 41°05’ and longitudes 67°31’ to 75°14’. The area of Tajikistan’s territory is 143,100 sq. km, stretching 700 km from west to the east and 350 km from north to the south.
The country’s borders perimeter total 3,000 km. The territory of the country is divided into 4 administrative regions: Sogd Region, Khatlon Region, Mountain-Badakhshan Autonomous Region and Regions under Republican Administration.
Tajikistan is a mountainous country. Mountains occupy about 93% of the terrain while about half of the territory is situated at an altitude above 3,000 m. The absolute heights vary from 300 to 7,495 masl. Western deserts and semi-deserts of Turan lowland gradually translate to the foothills. To the east, there are the huge mountain ranges of the Tibetan plateau and Tian Shan. Such geographical positioning results in great diversity of natural conditions and environments.
Due to specific climate conditions and landscape, mountains of Tajikistan are considered the main glacial knot of Central Asia. Glaciers retain huge amounts of water, and regulate river flow and climate. Glaciers and snowfields are the main source of water replenishing the Aral Sea. Glaciers occupy more than 8.4 thousand sq.km, which is about 6% of the total country area. The most ice cover is observed in the western part of Pamir Mountains.
The largest glacier of Tajikistan is Fedchenko Glacier. Its length exceeds 70 km, width - 2 km, and maximum thickness - 1 km. The volume of glacier itself with tributaries is 144 cub.km. Upper elevations of the glacier reach 6,200 masl, and the glacier tongue is located at 2,909 masl. The total number of glaciers is about 8 thousand and 7 of the glaciers have a length of more than 20 km.